How to Make a Mitered Box on the Tablesaw

Now that the Mechanical Cellarette can be put on the completed list it’s time to concentrate on a custom order for an Etsy client.  This particular order has been one I’ve been doing convo’s on for quite a while.  The lady is in no rush, thank goodness, because I did tell her how involved I was with the Cellarette.  The purpose of this box is to hold keepsakes of her cat:

AtticusThis is the nameplate for it and if you notice the little defect between the I and the C, so did I!  They’re making a new one at Trophies of Las Vegas with no questions asked.  I’ve been using them for years and Whitney thought that perhaps a piece of metal lodged underneath the nameplate as it was being cut.  Good excuse for a bike ride to pick it up when it’s done!

Planing edge on Leopardwood

Planing edge on Leopardwood

My client had seen this listing on my Etsy store which started a series of convo’s for a custom one made to her specifications.  Being a cat owner myself (Ali is on my lap as we speak/type?) it was easy to imagine the bond she felt towards hers and the mementos she wanted to keep.  I had some difficulty getting the Leopardwood but as luck would have it, a good friend was headed to Phoenix and offered to stop at Woodworkers Source and pick a piece of it up for me.  It is a beautiful wood but feels rather waxy and as you can see in the picture, has a very indistinct grain structure.  The plane creates dust rather than a shaving and this is edge grain!  The box will be constructed using mitered corners with Maple splines for added strength and decoration.  It’ll have a hinged top and a heart shaped lock made of brass.  Size is approximately 5″ wide by 8″ long and just under 5″ tall.

Since mitered corners can be tricky to assemble and cut I thought I’d share my method with this pictorial essay.  Using a sled that slides in both miter gauge slots for stability is the first thing I believe is important.  Also you need to be certain your blade is tilted at 45 degrees, I use a electronic angle gauge for that.  You may notice that the fence of the sled is adjustable.  Always check for 90 degrees before you start to cut your stock on a scrap piece of wood.                                                                                                                                 Note: click on the first picture and you will see it full size plus the caption, you can also click the next arrow to advance the tutorial.

Since you want your grain to be continuous as it goes around the corners you need to constantly flip the board over after each cut.  The first piece is cut with the show side down, then a stop block is placed for its length.  By using a spacer that is equal to the difference in the box sides you’ll be able to have exactly the same length pieces.  In this instance the long side = 8″ and the short = 5″.  That makes the size of the spacer 3″.  Always lay your pieces down the same way they come off the saw, this board was selected for the light streak about one third of the way up.

Free clip-art

Free clip-art

The lid of this box will be a carved and copper gilded cat image.  It looks like this.  After scaling it to the top panel it was carved out and is in the process of being gilded with Copper.  The unusual aspect of the construction is that this panel will need to be gilded and sealed before the box is assembled.  The way to build a good box with a nicely fitted lid is to build it as a cube and then separate the two later.  Here’s what it looks like now, the next step is gilding it which is scheduled for tomorrow morning.  I’ll do a separate blog about the carving and gilding of this cat in the next blog.

All the parts fit

All the parts fit

 

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Mechanical Cellarette Complete

With the help of my friend Randy, and a rented truck from U-Haul the Cellarette made its way home.  After about 115 hours of actual work and countless hours of planning and worrying I’m very pleased to have it complete.  My client was excited to get the piece and told me it was more than he expected.  Having never seen one of these in person I think we collaborated well and came up with a great design.  I took a few pictures inside of his office but they didn’t turn out the greatest.  He took many more and promised to send them to me and I’ll be more than happy to share them on this blog.   I did want to take a video and post it to YouTube before delivery.  The inside of the shop isn’t the most elegant setting for this beautiful (if I do say so myself!) piece but didn’t want to attempt taking it in my clients office.  It took me a number of “takes” to get the video you see here:

There are always a few final details to work complete.  Once the lift unit was centered and level as possible it was time to attach the back. The final step before buttoning things up was to make some type of cable management system which you see in the left hand photo.  Needed to make sure of clearance and no possibility of pinching the wiring.  The back is a piece of furniture grade, Mahogany plywood which needs to be removable in the remote possibility the unit needing service.  It was finished with Danish oil; I chose to attach it using slotted, oval head brass screws and finishing washers.  This adds to the authenticity — I didn’t think that a masonite back attached with a nail gun would be true to the Victorian Era of this piece!

 

Installation of the Leg Tips

Installation of the Leg Tips

One other detail was to attach the leg tips from Lee Valley to the legs.  In one of the posts about this piece I explained the process needed to get them fitted.  Now that they’re installed I really like how they enhance the Victorian/Edwardian Era appearance of the unit.  In the previous post I discussed how their tapered fit was achieved.  Although they are supposed to be a friction fit and held on with a single brad my I decided to use a thin coating of silicon seal in case there is any wood movement as our seasons change.  Usually not much of an issue in the desert but — you know me!  Also played it safe by pre-drilling that hard Bubinga.

Auton Adjustment Tool

Auton Adjustment Tool

This left me with the dilemma of what to do with the adjusting tool for the lift unit.  First of all, I doubt it will ever be needed due to the quality of the lift mechanism from Auton.  But …… what if?  Knowing that if I gave it to the owner it would be in a drawer somewhere, someone would look at it and wonder what in the world it was before tossing it into the nearest garbage can!  Using some hardware for mounting pictures in their frame I created a secure, hidden place for the tool under the lower, left corner.

Italian Marble Set in Place

Italian Marble Set in Place

Now it was just a wait and see for the tile man to come over to fit and set the top and we’re good to go.  I like how that vein runs through the center section where it opens.  After allowing things to cure overnight the unit was given its final cleaning and coat of Liberon Black Bison wax.  All in all, a very complex but rewarding project to build.  Nothing like a challenge to keep you motivated and awake at nights wondering how it’ll all come together.  The most rewarding thing about any project comes when it’s obvious the client is more than pleased with the work.

Glad I was able to share this project with you, my blog readers and I’d welcome your comments about how it came out.  Not sure I’d want to go into production on it but at least now I know more about it than I did several months ago!

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Mechanical Cellarette — Final Details

I’ve used this before in my writing but it’s worth repeating!  Many years ago Diane and I were having a discussion about her paintings and she told me that: “I work until I get to a problem area, solve that, and then continue on to the next problem”.  That may not be the exact quote but her concept has always stuck with me.  Woodworking projects, whether it’s a complex furniture project such as the Mechanical Cellarette or a simple mitered box are much the same.  Come to think of it;  life in general is like that too!

Here are some of the final problems and solutions for this project.  First of all, now that the casework is done it was time to install the mechanics.  Not being 100% certain of the interior space needed for the Auton 1001 Lift I allowed extra.  The overall proportions of the cabinet were taken into consideration as well.  The unit sits in a 3/4″ Maple plywood box.  It is supported by 4, Poplar “beams” that span the bottom of the case.  These were sized to bring the unit level with the case top.  This brief slide shows the installation:

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Squaring top to lift

Squaring top to lift

Now that the Auton is in position the next step is centering the top over it.  It’s customary to center a cabinet top to the cabinet sides but in this instance it needed to be centered over the lift.  Oversized holes were drilled in the corner blocks installed earlier and the top was then attached with brackets to the housing for the lift.  The process was similar to squaring a tablesaw top to the blade — the corner screws were left snug and then the top was adjusted to fit square to the opening.  Just like squaring the tablesaw top, a mallet was used to accomplish that.

Side Clearance

Side Clearance

 

Now the unit needs to be positioned and centered.  Here’s a concern now that the box is at Davis Glass and Mirror.  There was more play in the mechanism than I expected and in my perfectionism quest I may not have allowed enough space for the mirror on the sides of the box.  I used spacers of 3/16″+ on either side to mimic the mirror thickness — won’t know until I get the box back from them at the end of next week!

The last step before taking it to have the mirror installed is fitting the top — another potential problem that took some head scratching to solve.  Essentially, once the location was established it’s a matter of drilling holes accurately.  The top is attached with dowels as a safety feature.  If there is an obstruction between the cellarette and the top as it is going to the stored position, the dowels will allow the top to separate from the bottom.  Small, 1/16″ holes were drilled through the top into the bottom and then 1/4″ holes were drilled on the drill press for the dowels, here’s that process:

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That leaves me with a waiting game.  Now that the box is at the glass shop I can’t go any further until that is ready.   They estimated that will be at the end of next week.  I’ll be worrying about the clearance but since no good ever comes from worry I’ll try to contain myself!  In the meantime I can apply the final coat of Danish oil to the entire project so it’ll fully cure.  The last thing will be having the tile cut, polished, and installed.  Hopefully I can schedule that quickly.  When that’s complete all that remains is the final coat of wax and delivery.  Seems like this has been a lengthy process but we knew that going in.

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Now where is my tape measure? — Time to clean!

 

I tend to keep a pretty clean shop, something needed when it’s as compact in size as mine is.  As a general rule, everything is in it’s place, that’s how I function the best.  However; when you can’t find common tools like a tape, square, or pencil it’s time to clean!

Time to Clean!

Time to Clean!

It seemed like every horizontal surface was covered with something as this panoramic view shows.  Not only is it dangerous, I hate to waste time looking for something just to find it’s “hiding in plain sight!”

Work has progressed on the Mechanical Cellarette to where I see that proverbial  light at the end of the tunnel.  Whenever I’m involved in a complex project my mind usually goes back to my running days.  Until an unsuccessful knee surgery in 2011 I was an ultra mountain runner.  My favorite race is one I did on about 4, even numbered years in Prescott Valley, Arizona.  It’s called Man against Horse and as the name implies, you run the 50 mile course against folks on horses!  Projects are like races, you do the training/research and you’re pumped up and going along strong.  About 15-20 miles into it things start to slow down as you realize this is a long one and there are many obstacles yet to overcome.  In this particular race, you can see the finish line when you’re about 6-7 miles from it and that’s where I feel I am now on this project.  There are a myriad of little details I need to be aware of to complete the project successfully.

First off, once the casework was assembled I needed to have a way to maneuver it around the shop.  A pair of furniture dollies from Harbor Freight with cross pieces that support and incase the legs was just the right thing.  Don’t know how they sell them so cheaply, you can’t even buy a set of casters for their price!

This will allow me to get around all 4 sides for the final sanding, finishing, and installation of the top and mechanics.  The final location for this piece is in a second story office and thankfully, there is an elevator but these dollies will make getting it in position much easier.

The next detail was to make corner blocks.  These serve two purposes, one to reinforce the corners and the other is to attach the top via oversized holes.  This allows for wood movement as humidity levels change.  These needed to be notched around the legs.  You can make these with a simple rub glue joint but for this project they are glued and screwed.  Adds a little more to the process but with the reputation Bubinga has of being difficult to glue it was worth it.  This meant drilling and countersinking the angled bracket.  Is Bubinga a hard wood?  Check it out, this is the first time I ever broke one of these screws and I’m using hand power, not a powered screwdriver.  Even with pre-drilled holes and beeswax coated screws I managed to snap one off!

All that remains is drilling the oversized hole to attach the top.

Housing for Auton 1000-A

Housing for Auton 1000-A

The Auton lift needs to be encased in a box like structure which, due to the design of the cabinet; had to be built in place!  When used as an appliance lift the installation is relatively straight forward.  Simply create an opening in the counter top, locate the unit on a shelf below, center it in that hole, and you’re good to go!  Details here are a little different.  Once the correct height below the top was calculated with the four “support beams” you see below the box, the entire unit will be installed onto it.  Next the top will be fastened securely to the sides of the box to maintain the correct clearance between it and the lift unit.  The outer edges of the top will be secured in oversized holes in the corner blocks to allow for any wood movement.

Blacked out

Blacked out

Yet another detail at this stage is the box i.e. Mechanical Cellarette that is attached to the lift.  Essentially this is a five sided box, mirrored on the inside and the two outer faces.  The back will have a black laminate to help make it disappear.  Speaking of disappearing, black dye was used on all visible interior parts to make them go away!  Just like a set for a play, if it’s flat black your eye won’t be drawn to it.  Unlike a TV lift system that has a single lifting point at the back where it is unseen, this lift has the mechanism at each side which is exposed when the unit is open.  I had some black dye left over from a picture framing project which serves this purpose well.

As far as the box itself goes, it is made of 3/4″ plywood.  The construction is butt joints, glued and screwed together.  The top needs to be able to give way in case there is an obstruction as it closes.  This will be accomplished by attaching it to the box with dowels. Once everything is installed and adjusted it will be taken to a glass shop for the installation of the mirror.  The bottom piece of mirror needs to be removable to access the lift adjustments.

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To wrap up this detail, mounting holes need to be drilled into the Auton lift framework –they forgot this step before the unit was shipped!

So what’s left?  The lid needs to be banded prior to installing the marble to conceal that plywood edge.  Final sanding and double checking for any flaws needs to be done before  applying the oil which is next on my schedule.  The finish will take more than a week, allowing 24 hours drying time between each coat.  The box section needs to be mirrored which will be outsourced.  My tile man needs to cut and attach the marble to the top and inner panels.  Like I mentioned at the beginning of this blog; I see the finish line but there are still a number of miles to go and mountains to cross before I get there!

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TGIF: Assembled — Can’t Wait until Tomorrow!

 

Coat 1 of many!  Tried and True Danish Oil

Coat 1 of many! Tried and True Danish Oil

I’ve mentioned the stress of glue ups and this one was no exception.  Before I get into that though I’d like to share this picture showing the first coat of the Tried & True, Danish oil on the top.  I think it looks phenomenal!  It really brings out the beauty of the Bubinga chosen for this project.  The large, open section in the center is where the hidden bar compartment will come up.  It, along with the two side areas will be inlaid with the Italian Marble.  For the last 50 years or so the finish of choice for me was Watco brand Danish oil.  I used it during my public school teaching career, private students, and pretty much every project made by me from boxes to furniture.  The top coat is one I learned about at San Francisco State during the 70’s from a workshop taught by Art Espenet Carpenter, a well known artist/woodworker of the time.  So, if this is such a great finish, why do I now go to the Tried and True brand?  Blame it on the EPA and their restrictions on solvents, emissions, etc. for forcing the company to change the formulation to meet their requirements.  I’ve been in contact with the people at Watco and they admit to the changes but also say it’s essentially the same product — my hands on experience tells me different!  It’s now stinky, oily, and doesn’t act the same so it’s time to try another product.  In my test samples I’ve been impressed with this product and will use it on my personal Armoire as well.  Many advantages but mainly it contains no solvents or petroleum products.  It comes from flax seeds and uses natural honey as a wax and is 100% food safe.  I suppose that over-all the EPA has our safety in mind but it’s very hard to find the original finishing products that have proven themselves over the years — okay, time to get off my soapbox!

1/2" Mortise for legs

1/2″ Mortise for legs

Prior to final assembly the main crossmember needed to be mortised into the legs.  This piece will be the main support for the mechanics of the cellarette so is quite substantial.  The mortise is 1/2″ thick by 1″ deep and about 1 1/4″ wide.  After cutting them with the hollow chisel mortiser the tenons were cut on the tablesaw with the dado set which was still installed from the previous operation.

Trimming Tenons

Trimming Tenons

They were cut slightly oversized as I like to trim them to final fit with hand tools like this rabbet block plane shown in the picture at the left.  The assembly went in stages, first the back which is made up of the two legs, bottom and top stretchers.  Gorilla glue is used for this assembly.  The next day the front was assembled, this time Gorilla glue for the mortise and tenon joints and the Lee Valley Cabinetmakers glue for the long tongue and groove joints.

Bottom Apron

Bottom Apron

The initial intent was to use a beading tool for some decorative bead work on the piece.  Unfortunately, this wild grained Bubinga just didn’t respond well to the beading tool so that plan had to be modified.  After experimenting with various router bits I found that the safest one for this particular batch of Bubinga were straight cuts rather than coves and rounds.  I ended up using a 45 degree chamfer to create this design on the bottom apron.  The design was almost accidental.  After making a few shallow passes the stop blocks were moved closer together which resulted in this interesting arch design.  It’s mimicked on the front as well.  The same bit is used on both sides of the top edge so everything is cohesive.

After some final fitting of the joinery and several dry fits it was time to “go for it”.  My preference would have been to assemble it with the legs down on the floor but there was just too many pieces to juggle and  finagle into position.  Here is the results, even though most glues say you can remove the clamps after an hour or less my preference is leaving it clamped overnight.  Can’t wait until tomorrow!

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Finally, Glue Up of Bubinga Frame and Panel

It always seems to take a long time between the start of a project to the assembly of some of its pieces.  The first goal, after milling the lumber to approximate dimensions, was to assemble the top.  The rest of the cabinet sizes would be based on that.  Well, if you’ve been following the progress of this piece the top has been done.  The next step was to cut all of the frame and panel members that will make up the front and sides of the Mechanical Cellarette.  In my last blog about this unit those pieces were completed on the shaper, the panels were sized and ready for a couple of coats of the Tried and True Danish oil that will be used for this project.  If you missed that, here is a LINK to that post.  In my opinion the panels turned out beautifully with the two coats of oil.  The purpose of pre-finishing the panels is primarily to make sure no unfinished surface will ever be visible should they shrink as time goes on. Another plus to doing this is so the glue won’t stick to the panels as the frame is assembled.

Smoothing tools for the Bubinga

Smoothing tools for the Bubinga

Once the pieces were coped and sized they were made as smooth as possible at this stage of the construction; although I prefer not to sand I think this project will require it.  I’ve mentioned how difficult the Bubinga can be to work with due to it’s tricky grain structure.  At left are some of the tools used to accomplish that.  They included a smooth plane which was effective on 70% of the wood as long as a super thin cut was taken, a cabinet scraper, and denatured alcohol to tame the grain down a bit so that it could be planed successfully.  That’s a technique that works well too in carving.  Here’s some of the process, pictures do not truly show the effects of smoothing the wood but this will give you some idea:

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Rabbet Block Plane to fine tune joinery

Rabbet Block Plane to fine tune joinery

The horizontal pieces of the frame and panel assembly are tenoned into the legs at the top and bottom.  The entire side piece fits into a shallow 1/4″ x 1/4″ groove.  The pieces were initially cut using a dado head in the tablesaw but intentionally slightly oversized.  A rabbet block plane is used to fine tune the pieces to fit into their perspective grooves and mortises.  Something usually needed to compensate for that inevitable wood movement.

Japanese Razor Saw

Japanese Razor Saw

When it came to cutting the tenons to fit the mortises I discovered that my English style crosscut dovetail saw didn’t have enough blade under the reinforced back to complete the cut.  Although I prefer the English style saws for my joinery for this instance only a Japanese style razor saw was able to get the depth I needed.  By holding its long, bamboo handle as shown in this picture I’m able to get a straight cut.  By the way, here is another great use for the Black Diamond Headlamp I mentioned previously, it really helps me see and cut to the line!

The first panel I decided to tackle was the front one.  It’s approximately 39″ long and 22″ tall.  The frame consists of four,  5/16″ thick, equally sized panels.  After arranging the wood to where I thought the grain was being showcased to it’s best advantage it was time to do a dry fit, label all of the pieces, and lay out all of the clamps needed to accomplish the job as stress free as possible.

As you know, once the glue is applied to your pieces things can slip and slid around a bit and that is especially true with an assembly such as this.  What you’re seeing is the backside of the panel.  I had to chuckle to myself during the layout process as I recalled the difficulties my students have with math.  The horizontal rails needed to be divided evenly and then the vertical members centered on those divisions.  All of those markings are on the backs of the boards.  What you see in the second picture are polyethylene pads (1/4″ thick) laying on the clamps.  Their purpose is to elevate the panel so the clamp pressure is centered but more importantly they’re a barrier between the metal bar clamp and the glue.  Water based glue and steel clamps equal some pretty deep stains!  The glue up was done on the workbench so it looked like the first photograph.  Once all the glue was applied the entire unit was carefully carried over to the assembly table, laid onto the clamps, then squared, flattened, and secured to dry.  Can’t wait to turn it over tomorrow and see the show face!  My glue of choice comes from Lee Valley, this particular glue has an open time of 15-20 minutes, one that’s definitely needed when you’re a one man shop doing a complicated glue up.  After the assembly was in the clamps for about a half an hour it’s a good idea to make sure you can move each panel within the frame.  No matter how careful you are, some glue is bound to stick to the panels, pre-finishing them with the oil makes it easier to break them loose.  They need to be able to move as the wood moves due to seasonal changes.

Whenever I do a frame and panel assembly there is usually some slight discrepencies between the pieces.  Usually these can be smoothed out by careful block plane use but I have some concerns due to the nature of the Bubinga.  Sanding carefully with a random orbit sander followed by hand sanding and a block may be what’s needed to work this beautiful wood.  I made up a sample piece to experiment with before committing myself to the process — better safe than sorry!

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Creating the Panel & Frame: Mechanical Cellarette

The last post on the Mechanical Cellarette found the top of the unit ready for final details.  This is one of those projects where I have the artistic license to adjust the sizes a bit to utilize the available lumber.  The 8/4 Bubinga was mail ordered from Woodworkers Source in Arizona.  There was enough to make the top, legs, and supporting framework for the lift unit.  I planned my cuts to  have enough of that beautiful 8/4 stock to resaw into the panels needed for the sides and front of the unit.   The remaining material is 4/4 Bubinga which I was able to source locally from Peterman Lumber.  I’m glad that I was able to mill enough material for the panels from the 8/4 as the grain and figure in it is much more pronounced and showy than the material from Peterman.

Initial Planing of Stock

Initial Planing of Stock

There are always plusses and minuses when it comes to exotic lumber.  With the plus of showy grain comes the minus of it being more difficult to work with.  Wood that’s a bit easier to work, even if it’s the same species, usually doesn’t exhibit that wild and crazy grain!  In this instance though I was happy the 4/4 material from Peterman was easier to work.  These pieces were approximately 6″ wide so that determined the sizes of the frame for the Cellarette.  After running all of the material through the planer to achieve a uniform thickness, pieces were cut to the approximate length needed, one edge planed smooth and square, then ripped on the table saw to the required widths.

End panels labeled for shaping.

End panels labeled for shaping.

These were then carefully laid out and labeled for the next step which was to cut the cope and stick joinery.  Shown here are the two frames for the ends.  The pieces you see clamped together are the seven panels ripped from the 8/4 stock that will fill those frames.  Lots of chalk, arrows, tape, etc. to keep from getting confused and mistakenly shape the wrong edge or side of those pieces — no time to daydream!

Squaring miter gauge

Squaring miter gauge

Next step is setting up the shaper.           I have an almost antique, Rockwell Shaper model 43-120.  This has a 1/2″ spindle, 1 1/2 hp motor, and runs on 110 volts.  Rated as light duty but has always done the job for me.  A set of matched cutters from Freeborn work just fine but it is critical that everything is as square as possible.  This starts with the miter gauge used for making the cope cuts.  Shapers have a bad reputation with many woodworkers. Accidents on them are particularly bad because the cutters will just make mince meat out of any body part it comes in contact with!

The first step of the process is to cut the coped part of the joint, that is the end grain.  Here’s a video I made to illustrate that:

After the pieces are all coped, this is what is referred to as the “stick” part of the joint.  This cut is made with the grain of the wood:

Ready for Panels

Ready for Panels

The results are laying on the shop floor, the horizontal pieces are longer than needed as they will have tenons on the end to fit into legs.  In the class I recently taught there was some reluctance and unfamiliarity with working with rulers and fractions.  Oh boy, is this ever a skill needed for building furniture.  Most of the calculations have to do with locating the center of the spaces that need to be filled with the panels.  Then you need to add for the grooves, subtract for expansion, and go from there!  Believe me, I will also cut scrap pieces before cutting the actual panel stock.  There isn’t enough material left to make a mistake.  Even if the wood was easy to obtain (which it isn’t) every board will finish differently. When making a piece that will only have natural oil finish on it you can’t dye or stain all of the pieces that have different coloration to look like one, unified piece.  So, that saying “measure twice, cut once” is one I live by!

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All of that made for a pretty long couple of days, especially since my eyes were dilated from a morning optometrist visit.  The goal tomorrow is to begin the finish on the panels.  They’ll need to have at least two coats of oil before glueing them up.

 

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